Role of Women and their Socio-Economic Status in Shrimp Farming are very important and vast to describe. Shrimp culture has changed the livelihood pattern of the coastal region people of Bangladesh.
Since 1980, fry collection has become the chief source of livelihood for women and children in coastal area. Surviving the livelihood near about 83.08 percent population, both males and females were engaged in shrimp fry collection in all around the year. (Halim et al, 2001).
Almost 84.82 percent of people were spending 4-9 hours for shrimp fry collection but they were gaining only about 2000-2500 BDT per month. (Halim et al, 2001). Moreover, their income depends on seasonal variation. The level of income and income distortion determined their lives and livelihoods. Perpetuating gender discrimination was found in the shrimp farming occupation.
Women and children do various types of work related to shrimp production. Most women and children of the study area maintain their livelihood by collecting shrimp fry, preparing gher as day labourers, clearing the shaowla and working in the processing plant. It is mostly the poor women who are working in the shrimp sector. Women and men work in the gher or any other sectors related with shrimp farming, their labour is exploited. Women reported that they receive BDT 80-90 per day for earth excavation in the gher, while their male counterparts receive BDT 100-120 per day. For cleaning and de-heading they receive BDT 80-90 per day while their male counterparts receive BDT 100-120 per day. (FGD conducted in Kaliganj).
Women work more and they work as equally as male worker from 7 am to 1 pm and 3 pm to 5 pm. But their labour is exploited to the gher owner or to the manager. The poor land ownership signifies that only 34 percent households have their own homestead, 66 percent households lived on the lands of Water development broad. That’s why the livelihood of the women remains in the debt of vicious cycle of poverty. Among the women 63% women are not migrant but a large portion women who are engaged with shrimp farming are migrant that is 37%.Before joining in the shrimp farming sector 62% women’s family had mud house but after joining in the farming sector the rate of bud house decreased and the rate of bamboo built and some brick built house is increased. Because of engaging women in shrimp farming their social status is increasing through improving their children education and improving their income.
But in the study area the women who are surveyed for the study among them 43% respondent responded that they are harassed in different ways. They are harassed by verbally or physically, 26-30 age group women are more harassed at their working place. Role of Women and their Socio-Economic Status in Shrimp Farming is not small history to describe in single page.