the animals of two bio-ecological and agro-ecological zones of
B.Sc. (Honours) Part- III Examination-2008
Zoology Course: Zool.-HE-341
Department of Zoology
University of Rajshahi
All the admiration to Allah the most Merciful and Beneficent Who has enabled me to submit this report on excursion 2009.
I express my most sincere gratitude and indebtedness to our field work coordinators and examination committee chairman Prof. Dr. Ismat Ara Ali madam. Also extended thanks and gratefulness to other members of the committee as Prof. Dr. Md. Abdul Mannan sir, Prof. Dr. Md. Sowdagor Mahafujar Rahman sir, Dr. Saiful Islam Faruki sir.
Especial thanks to Prof. Dr. Md. Abdus Salam sir who act as a guardian and leader of our excursion team and I am very much thankful to him for his friendly behave and presence with us for completing a successful tour.
I extended my thanks and gratefulness to Prof. Dr. Md. Abdul Mannan sir for his kind co-operation by giving us important information during our whole study period.
I wish to express my profound sense of gratitude and appreciation to Dr. Anjuman Ara Ali madam, Prof. Dr. Selina Parween madam and Prof. Dr. Abdus Salam Bhuiyan sir for joining with our excursion team and for their friendly behave to us.
I would like to thanks to our sir Dr. Monirrujjam Sorkar who introduced us about ecology and ecological zones of Bangladesh. He holds this class before excursion and we got benefit.
I also thanks to Md. Monowar Hossain (Biplob) bhai and Md.Golam Mostofa bhai for their helping mentality which made us oblige to them.
I must have to thank the bus driver and helpers for their cordial help to make the journey pleasant and successful.
I would like to thanks my friends for their constant inspiration and coordination in excursion.
We went to excursion to know about zones of Bangladesh and animals are found in these zones. We gain knowledge about bio-diversity and ecosystem. After observing the Barind tract, estuarine of Padma and Mohanonda, Himalyan Piedmont Plain, Active Tista Floodplain and surroundings we have achieved practical knowledge which broadens our theoretical knowledge. Volahat Resom Bejagar, Babudying, Dhamurhat forest, bird collection in museum of Dinajpur Govt. College, Banglabandha, enclave of Angorpota and Dhahogram, Rangpur Carmichiel College and many other places. We observed little number of zones of Bangladesh. So to increase our out look as part of our syllabus work we had visited those places. We had completed this tour successfully through obeying the advices of our honorable teachers.
A few groups of animals are cosmopolitan in having world wide distribution and most animals are restricted in distribution because of some kind of barrier or because of past history of origin and dispersal. An understanding of their present day distribution takes us into zoogeography. Three aspects of the distribution of an organism are generally recognized—
1) Geographic range. 2) Geologic range. 3) Ecological distribution.
On the basis of distribution of chordates P.L. Sclater divided the whole World into six Zoogeographical regions in 1857. The six zoogeographical regions are the Palaearctic, the Nearctic, the Neotropical, the Ethiopian, the Oriental and the Australian. Oriental region is situated in South Asia of Himalayan. Bio-geographically, Bangladesh is situated in the “Oriental Region” lying in the transitional point between the Indo-Himalayas and Indo-Chinese sub-regions of the Orient (Morain, 1984), within the 147570sq.km national geographic boundary (BBS, 2001). Geographically Bangladesh lies astride the tropic of cancer. Bangladesh lies between latitudes 20o34′ and 26o38′ N, and longitudes 88o01′ and 92o41′ E. Bangladesh is located to the eastern side of the south Asian subcontinent bordering India to the west, north and east and Myanmar (Burma) to the southeast. To the south lies the funnel-shaped tip of the Bay of Bengal. The Himalayas lie to the north –west corner of the country.
Ernst Haeckel(1896) defined ecology as, ‘ the total relation of the animal to both its organic and its inorganic environment’ . Eugene Odum (1963, 1969 and 1971) has defined ecology as ‘ the study of the structure and function of ecosystems’.
The epithet ‘bio-ecological zone’ has been coined as this atlas highlights the biological as well as ecological attributes of the country. Thus, this assignment highlights both the properties like physiography, climate, soil type, flooding depth and frequency and their cumulative effects on the biotic elements like floral and faunal diversities.
Physiographic variations in the soil and hydrological conditions, as well as variations in the climatic condition-factors such as temperature and rainfall- mainly contribute to the country’s diverse ecology. The northwestern region of the country is the piedmont plain of the Himalayas and undergoes the most extreme climatic conditions. Bangladesh has mangrove forests in the southern regions housing an estuarine ecosystem, while the evergreen forest in the Chittagong Hill Tract (CHTs) has the characteristics of a mountainous ecosystem.
Practical observation is needed to know about all regions above mentioned of Bangladesh. Knowledge will limited without observing these region. We can differ one region from others after observing practically.
The diversity and integrity of species in an ecosystem is generally determined by physiographic features, climatic conditions, the respective food-chain, energy cycle and other ecological characteristics.
Species within various ecosystems adapt themselves to a particular area for their own survival and productivity.
Efforts have been made to identify the major or indicative species (Major or indicative species are those species, which posses unique characteristics representative of a particular eco-system) for each zone, but many of the commonly found species migrate across the zones. However, species which are more frequently found in a particular region have been shown in this report.
The excursion team:
The team was associated by our respectable teachers-
- Prof. Dr. Md. Abdus Salam
- Prof. Dr. Ismat Ara Ali
- Prof. Dr. Md. Abdul Mannan
- Prof. Dr. Md. Sowdagar Mahfujar Rahman
- Dr. Saiful Islam Faruki
- Dr. Anjuman Ara Ali
MATERIAL AND INFORMATION :
Following materials were used information collection—
- i. Note book.
- ii. Camera.
- iii. Recorder.
- iv. Thermometer.
- v. Discussion with local people.
Bangladesh has 1,47,570 sq km land area. Including rivers and island water bodies occupying 6.7% of the country’s landmass. Bangladesh is deltaic in origin with a flat terrain and low relief and nearly 50% of the country lies below the mean sea level.
The country is divided into six administrative divisions namely, Dhaka, Chittagong, Khulna, Rajshahi, Barisal and Sylhet. The divisions are further sub – divided into 64 districts constituting 460 thanas and 85, 650 villages.
The climate of Bangladesh is subtropical and tropical with temperatures ranging from an average of 21°C in winter and 35°C in summer. There are six main identifiable seasons, namely Grishma or summer, Barsha or Monsoon, Sharat or fall, Hemanta or fall, Sheit or winter and Bashanta or spring. The tropical climate has made the country luxuriant in vegetation and the country takes pride in hosting the Sundarbans, the largest littoral mangrove forest in the world and abode the important flagship species, the Royal Bengal Tiger. Tropical evergreen forests of the Chittagong Hill Tracts and sal or deciduous forests also harbour rich pools of genetic reserves. The unique wetland ecosystem (haor, baor, beel and jheel) is also endemic to Bangladesh, with a total area of about 8 million hectares.
The country supports a wealth of biodiversity, including 113 species of mammals, 628 species of birds, 126 species of reptiles, 22 species of amphibians, 708 species of freshwater and marine fish, 400 species of mollusks and over 5, 000 species of vascular plants. Many of these species are of international significance, such as the Asian Elephant, Royal Bengal Tiger, Gharial, Gangetic Dolphin and Hoolock Gibbon.
Agroecological Zone land areas recognised on the basis of hydrology, physiography soil types, tidal activity, cropping patterns, and seasons. In fact an agroecological zone indicates an area characterised by homogeneous agricultural and ecological characteristics. This homogeneity is more prominent in the sub region and unit levels. The agroecological zones of Bangladesh have been identified on the basis of four elements such as physiography, soils, land levels in relation to flooding and agroclimatology.
- 1. Physiography: It is the primary element in difining and deliniating the Agroecological Region of Bangladesh. Three broad physiographic regions are discernible in Bangladesh are –
- Floodplains of the total land area 80%
- Terraces (slightly uplifted fault blocks) 8% and
- Hills of the total land area 12%
Altogether 34 physiographic units and subunits have been recognized, these units have been grouped into 30 regions. The Tertiary Hills are situated in Chittagong, Cox’s Bazar and the greter Sylhet districts. The average height of the terraces from the adjacent flood plains is 6-25 m. Bangladesh has an exceptional hydro geographical setting. Three mighty rivers the Ganges (the Padma), Brahmaputra and Meghna and their network of distributaries and tributaries extending over Bangladesh, Bhutan, Nepal, India, and China. The total area of the Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna drainage basin is about 1.5 million sq km of which approximately 8% is in Bangladesh, 62% in India, 18% in China, 8% in Nepal, and 4% in Bhutan.
Soils form the second element in defining and differentiating AEZs. Soil conditions determine such important properties for plant growth as moisture supply and root aeration as well as nutrient supply.
Bangladesh in general has alluvial soils. A total of 21 general soil types have been identified in Bangladesh. The soil resource can be divided into five major groups; floodplain, hill, terrace, man made-land, and miscellaneous land soils.
Floodplain soils are alluvial deposits ranging from sandy soils deposited on higher ridges, silty clay loams on the lower ridges, to silty clays and clays in the depressions. Floodplain soil constitutes about 66.4% of the total soil area of the country.
Soils of the six terrace types covering about 7.1% of the country’s total soil area, are diverse, ranging from deep reddish- brown, friable, well-drained clay loams to gray, poorly drained silty top soils over clay on level highlands.
3. Land levels in relation to flooding or Land types or Flooding Depth:
The third element is seasonal flooding. The information provides depth of flooding. Based on the farmers experience in Bangladesh of normal flood levels are classified. Five classes have been used, which are given bellow.
I. High land ———————– Above normal flood level.
II. Medium high land ———————– few cm —-90 cm.
III. Medium low land ———————– 90cm —-180cm.
IV. Low land ———————– 180cm —-300cm.
V. Very low land ———————– more than 300 cm.
Flooding depth is related to the land types and depends on the amount of seasonal flooding. Flood levels in an area may vary by as much as a metre or more between different years. These classes actually indicate the level of flooding.
In general, ‘normal’ seasonal flooding is shallow in the northwest, west, east and south of the country and it is mainly deep in the center and northeast.
4. Agroclimatic Zones of Bangladesh:
Agroclimatic Zones have been identified by analyzing daily rainfall, temperature, PET, wind speeds, sunshine hours etc.
Four Agroclimatic Zones have been recognized, such as
a) Length of rainfed kharif and rabi growing period.
b) Length of rainfed pre-kharif period of unreliable rainfall.
c) Average number of the days in a year with minimum temperature bellow 15ºc.
d) Average number of the days in a year with maximum temperature higher than 40ºc.
The climate of Bangladesh is characterized by high temperature, high humidity, heavy rainfall and marked seasonal variations. It generally enjoys a sub-tropical climatic condition, greatly influenced by the presence of the Himalayan mountain range and the Tibet plateau in the north, and the Bay of Bengal in the south.
Flora and fauna of Bangladesh has vital role in formation of zone diversity as bio and agroecological zones. Diversity of flora and fauna is given below.
Plant resources constitute both wild and cultivated plants. The wild plant resources are rich in species diversity and generally found in the natural and semi-natural forests of the country. The natural forests are of three main types:
a) The semi-evergreen forests in the hilly northeastern region.
b) The deciduous forests in the central and northern regions and
c) The Sundarban mangrove forest in the southwest.
These forest areas occupy only about 7.5% of the total land area. There are some Unclassed State Forest (USF) which are situated in the Chittagong Hill Tracts (CHTs), covering 0.73 millon ha of land.
The semi-evergreen forests cover 0.67 million ha of land and are characterized by a rich diversity of species. Among them, the timber species of commercial importance are: the Garjan (Dipterocarpus sp.), Civit (Swintomia floribunda), Jarul (Lagerstroemia speciosa), Telsur (Hopea odorata), Boilam( Anisoptera scaphula) Chapalish (Artocarpus chaplasha) etc. Bambo is abundant in the under-storey and is found as pure stands.
The deciduous forests, covering 0.12 million ha of land, are predominately habitated by sal (Shorea robusta)trees. It is also known as the Sal forest. Other deciduous species such as the Haldu (Adina cordifolia), Ban chalta (Dillemia pentagyna), and Sonalu (Cassia fistula) occur as associate plants.
The Sundarbans accounts of over half of ass reserved forest area in Bangladesh. It provides about 40% of the total supply of all domestic timber and fuelwood in the country .The mangrove forest is rich in fuelwood and other NTFPs such as the Golpatta (Nypa fruticans), Hental(Phoenix paludosa), Khagra (Phragmites karka), honey and others.
Although it is not frequently recognized, Bangladesh supports a wealth of faunal diversity, including some 113 species of mammals, 628 birds, 126 reptiles, 22 amphibians, 708species of freshwater and marine fish, about 400 species of mollusks, 70 bees and as many species of wasps and over 5, 000 species of vascular plants.
Bangladesh has been tentatively divided into 30 agroecological zones. These 30 zones have been subdivided into 88 agroecological sub-regions.
|1. Old Himalayan piedmont Plain.||16. Arial Bil.|
|2. Tista Floodplain.||17. Meghna River Floodplain.|
|3. Karatoya –Bangali Floodplain.||18. Meghna Estuarine Floodplain.|
|4. Lower Atrai Basin.||19.Young Meghna Estuarine Floodplain.|
|5. Lower Purnabhaba Floodplain.||20. Old Meghna Estuarine Floodplain.|
|6.Brahamaputro Floodplain.||21. Surma- Kusiyara Floodplain.|
|7. Active Floodplain.||22. Eastern Surma- Kusiyara Floodplain.|
|8. Young Brahamaputro and Jamuna Floodplain.||23. Sylhet Basin.|
|9. Old Brahamaputro Floodplain.||24. Northern and Eastern piedmont Plains.|
|10. Ganges River Floodplain.||25. Chittagong Costal Plain.|
|11. Active Floodplain.||26. St Martin’s Coral Island.|
|12. High Ganges River Floodplain.||27. Barind Tract.|
|13. Low Ganges River Floodplain.||28. Madhupur Tract.|
|14. Ganges Tidal Floodplain.||29. Northern and Eastern Hills.|
|15. Gopalganj – Khulna Bils.||30. Akhaura Terrace.|
On basis of Bio-ecology Bangladesh has been tentatively divided into 25 regions. The name of the 25 Bio-Ecological Zones of Bangladesh is given below-
|1. Himalyan Piedmont Plain.||7a. Sundarbans.|
|2. Barind Tract.||7b. Chakaria Sundarbans.|
|3. Madhupur Sal Tract.||8a. Coastail Plains.|
|4a. Teesta Floodplain.||8b. Offshore Islands.|
|4b. Ganges Floodplain.||8c. Narikel Jinjira Coral Island.|
|4c.Brahmaputra-JamunaFloodplain.||8d. Meghna Esturarine Floodplain.|
|4d. Surma-Kushiyara Floodplain.||8e. Sandy Beach/ Sandy Dunes.|
|4e. Megna Floodplin.||9a. Chittagong Hills and the CHTs.|
|5a. Haor Basin.||9b. Sylhet Hills.|
|5b. Chalan Beel.||9c. Lalmai-Tipperah Hills.|
|5c. Kaptai Lake.||10. Saline Tidal Floodplain.|
|6. Gopalganj/ Khulna Peat Lands.||11. Major Rivers.|
Schedule of the excursion:
|08/02/09||Sonamosjid land port, Quarantine office, Volahat Sericulture farm, Tracces of Braind zone.|
|09/02/09||Dhamurhat forest, Alta dhigi, Paharpur, Sopnopuri, Museum of Dinajpur Govt. College.|
|10/02/09||Ramsagor, Kantaji temple, Banglabandha, Rocks Museum in Ponchogor Govt. Women college.|
|11/02/09||Enclave of Angorpota and Dhahogram, Burimari land port, Tista Barage.|
|12/02/09||Vinnojogot, Carmichiel college, Mohassangor.|
|05/03/09||Babudying, estuary of Padma and Mohanonda.|
Practical knowledge is more effective than theoretical. So our department arranged a study tour to North Bangle of Bangladesh. Our object was to observe practically how different ecosystem effect on flora and faunal distribution. So that it was easy to us observing North Bangle than whole Bangladesh. It is also mention that we are the first batch went to North Bangle for study purpose. So we are lucky.
- A. Time and date: We completed our study tour within five days.
We started our journey 8th February, 2009 and back to the Rajshahi University campus at 12th February.
- B. Route: Fifteen districts of North Bangle we have observed or touched in our journey. These districts are included different zones.
We have observed many zones in our tour. Here I describe two zones of those.
1. Barind Tract :
a) Location :
This zone includes the southwestern part of the Barind Tract where the underlying Madhupur Clay had been uplifted and cut into by deep valleys. This zone is situated 24o30′-25o55′ N and 88o10′-89o25′ E. Part of Rajshahi, Nawabganj and Naogaon districts are included in this zone.
Area: 16 sq km.
b. Sub-regions: No sub-region.
c. Physiography :
The average annual rainfall varies from 1270 to 1780mm. In this zone maximum temperature is 38oC and minimum 9oC. The soils include puddled silt loam to silty clay loam in the topsoils and porous silt with mottled plastic clay at varying depth. Deep grey terrace soils and grey valley soils are major components of the general soil types of the area. General fertility status is low, having low status of organic matter.
This region is gradually high form the Sea level. Rajshahi is 16.5m high from the Sea level. As like Chapai Nawabgonj is 27m, Nawgoan is 13.50m, Joipurhat is 19.5m and Dinajpur is 27m high from the Sea level.
d. Land Types:
High land 93%
Medium High Land 1%
Homestead and water 6%
e. Soil types:
Deep grey terrace soils and grey valley soils are major components of the general soil types of the area.
f. Floral diversity:
Trees: Sal (Shorea robusta ), Bhadi (Lannea coromandelica )
Planted trees : Neem (Azadirachata indica), Aam (Mangifera indica ) Litchu (Litchi chinensis ), Babla (Acacia nilotica ), Sisoo (Dalbergia sisoo )
Shrubs : Kamela ( Mallotus philippensis ),
Aquatic plants : Padda (Nelumbo nucifera ), Choto kut (Sagittaria sagittifolia ) etc plants are found in this zone.
g. Faunal diversity :
Amphibians : Tree frog (Polypedates leucomystax ),
Reptiles : Peacock-marked softshell turtle (Aspideretes hurum), Cantor’s kukri snake (Oligodon cyclurus ),
Birds: Sirkeer malkoha (Phaenicophaeus leschenautii), Gray francllin (Francolinus pondicerianus ),
Mammals: Rufous-tailed hare (Lepus nigricollis), Mouse –deer (Tragulus meminna ) etc animals are found in this zone.
Practically what we have seen in Barind zones are describe below-
We started our journey from Rajshahi University campus. Rajshahi is included in this zone and it is the Western boundary of the Barind zone. We went to Nawabganj to observe different terrace of Barind region. We found Padma, Mohanonda, Punorva, Pagla etc rivers on way to Nawabganj.
We found soil is deep gray, reddish. Water is mild saline. C3 and C4 cycle occurs frequently in plants because they get enough sunlight, water has mild saline.
Barind Tract formed on the old alluvium of Pleistocene period by new alluvial deposit of Tista silt and the Gangetic alluvium is rich in archaeological specimen.
We went to land port of Sona Mosjid, Nawabgonj. A plant Quarantine office is present there. The activity of quarantine office is to prevent the spreads of microbes between two countries. 15 Plant Quarantine offices are present in the Bangladesh.
After that we went to Dharampur, Volahat. It recorded that dry bulb temperature was 28o C and wet bulb temperature was 20o C.
We saw the Manual production of silk thread. People produce silk thread manually by ‘Khatghai’.
We went to Volahat silk farm. It is a large area situated in 31.79 Acre. Here the pH of soil is moderate to Mulberry. So huge number and healthy Mulbery is grows. For that it is easy the culture silkworm in this place. This farm supply seed or egg to farmer.
This kind of soil quality, environmental temperature, humidity etc is suitable for silkworm more than that of other places of the country.
We found a large water body called Bil Damus. Which has contribution in kept the environment rich surrounding the area. It was in border area not in the totally Barind area. We found a 300 aged Tomal tree in a temple of Premtoli.
Babudying Tour: (Sixth Day)
Examination committee arranged another tour to Babudying at 05/03/09. It is located in Chapai Nawabgonj. Babudying formed in Plyistocene period. Not only Babudying but also whole Barind zone has extreme environment. Because less number of river or branch of rivers are present here. Punorvoba, Attrai, Barnoy and Chalon Bil are found in this Barind zone. On the other hand Saver and Modhupur area are similar with Barind zone. But those are rich in environment because those are surrounded by many rivers.
We saw estuary of Padma and Mohanonda rivers. It is a vital point for aquatic animals. Ecosystem of that place is influenced by the estuary.
It is planned water supply to ‘Sormonla Khal’ from estuary. It is far from the estuary about 3.5 miles. Water of Sormongla khal used in agricultural purpose.
Babudying is a place where we found hillock. This is the special character of Barind zone. Sissu, Aurjun, jackfruit, Jahacul, Ciacul, Alen, varity of lemon, pach chokha etc trees are found in Babudying. These all are natural vegetation. Especial characteristic of this zone is Tomal tree which is found also here. Following characteristics we found in Babudying-
- i. Soil is reddish.
- ii. Hillocks are present.
- iii. Terraces are present.
- iv. Low water in soil particle.
It was a deep forest but now it is simple. All types of animals were present in that time. Like as tiger, chita, wild pigs, gaviallis, alligator, fox, 6-7 species of cats, wild buffalo, Nil gai, rabbit, mongoose, snake, wild rats, porcupine etc. Teethed wild pigs were present large numbers. We heard many birds were chirping like Dove and we can’t identify individually the each chirping. Perhaps 25-30 species were present in the Babudying. It can say it is a place where found loudness of silent.
So it can say that many birds are present in Babudying. Large animals are lost from the place except some nocturnal animals as foxes. It may cause hazard of environment by people.
We went to Dhamurhat forest in Nowgoan next day means 9th February,
2009. It is a decidious forest. In the forest we found a large water body called Alta dighi.
At the beginning of the journey we counted the dry bulb temperature was 20o C and wet bulb temperature was 17o C. Reached at the Alta dighi location we counted dry bulb temperature was 30o C and wet bulb temperature was 23o C.
Dhamurhat forest is the decidious forest. It is better deciduous forest than other decidious of Bangladesh. This forest is multi storied forest.
Soil is reddish. Soil partical contains less water. Shore trees are mostly grows here. Adapted animals are lived in this forest.
We heard chirping of many kinds of birds. Termite also present there. They are beneficiary to these shore trees. They are beneficiary in this tropical region. Termite feed dead plant or dead part of trees. It helps trees in Egdisis. Termite forms Termatorium and it may 6-7 feet high. We saw that kind of Termatorium in this forest. Termite and Termatorium founds only tropical deciduous forest.
Nawabgonj included in Barind zone but Termite is found because environment is different.
After that we went to Dinajpur Sopnopuri picnic spot. It was late evening when we reached the spot. We counted dry bulb temperature was 27o C and wet bulb temperature was 17oC.
We found reddish soil in the Sopnopuri picnic spot. A mini Zoo is present there. A five legged cow is present in the zoo. It is rare and exceptional. Other animals also present there.
We went to Dinajpur Govt. College. Specially want to see the Museum of Zoology department. Many stuffed birds are present in the museum. Less number of stuffed reptiles and mammals also present there. We saw following birds as following-
1. Crow 2. Dove
3. Bald headed falcon. (Madontak.)
4. Vulture 5. Cotton Pygmygose
6. Ferruginous pucherd 7. Owl
8. Nightingale 9. Kingfisher
10. Redural lapwing 11. Redcottled lapwing.
12. Heron 13. Myna
14. Parrot 15. Pigeon
16. Kalbaus 17. Modukhaoaus (Honey etter)
18. Kanapoka.(Found in R.U. Campus) 19. Dhones (Gray Hornbil)
Except these birds another species also present there. A few weeks baby is preserved there. This is exceptional.
It is easy to realize that these birds were present that zone. Ecosystem was suitable for living those birds. But now number and verity of birds are not as past. Locally extinct, migration, changed habitat etc are the main causes of decreasing birds of that zone.
Museum has rich collection of stuffed birds than any other museum of Bangladesh.
Next morning we went to Ramsagor National Park. It was early morning. We counted dry bulb temperature 20o C and wet bulb temperature 15o C. We saw sun rising natural site. It was very charming to us.
Ramsagor is a large water body. It was excavated by Raja Ramnath. It is a isoecological points. Many ecosystems grow on the bases of this water body. Many birds are living there get suitable environment. We found some deers and a “Madontak” in cage.
Completing this part we went to Kantaji temple. On way to temple found “Khapa” river. Some hillock is present beside the temple. This hillock formed by tectonic movement. That region also included in floodplain of “Khapa” river.
2. Himalyan Piedmont Plain
Being the ecotone between hill forests and low land swamps, ecologically this zone is very rich and diverse. Altitudinal migration of wildlife between these two distinct habitats is quite evident.
Most of the Panchagarh and Thakurgaon district and north-western parts of Dinajpur district, parts of Jamalpur, Netrokona, Sherpur, Sunamgonj and Sylhet districts are included in this zone. This zone is situated 25o38′- 26o38′ N and 88o10′-92o41′ E.
Area: 4008Km² (1549mile²)
- i. Northern.
- ii. North center.
- iii. Southern.
Most of the region has complex relief patterns which includes broad and narrow flood plain ridges and depression. The average annual rainfall varies from 1780 to 2290mm. In this zone maximum temperature is 36oC and minimum 9oC. The original diposits were sandy but they have generally weathered to produce loamy soils. Deep, rapidly permeable sandy loams and sandy clay loams are predominant in this region. They are strongly acidic in topsoil and moderately acidic in subsoils; low in weatherable K minerals.
This region is gradually highest form the Sea level. Banglabandha is 85m high from the Sea level. As like Ponchogor is 76m and Thakurgoan is 48.5m high from the Sea level.
d. Land type :
- i. High land ——————58%
- ii. Medium high land ——–34%
- iii. Medium low land ———7%
- iv. Homestead and water—-7%
e. Soil types : Sandy loams and sandy clay loams predominant general soil type;
1. Noncalcareous Alluvium.
2. Noncalcareous Grey Floodplain soils.
3. Noncalcareous Brown Floodplain soils
4 Noncalcareous Dark Grey Floodplain soils.
5. Black Terai Soils.
7. Made land.
Organic matter contents are generally higher than in most fooldplain soils of Bangladesh. The natural fertility of the soil is moderate but well sustained. Soil fertility problems include rapid leaching of N, K, S, Ca, Mg and B.
f. Floral diversity:
Trees: Sal (Shorea robusta), Khudi jam (Syzygium fruticosum)
Planted trees: Neem (Azadirachata indica), Aam (Mangifera indica ) Litchu (Litchi chinensis ), Kathal(Artocarpus heteropyllus )
Shrubs: Mankanta (Randia dumetorum) etc plants are found in this zone.
g. Faunal diversity :
Amphibians: Maculated tree frog (polypedates maculates ),
Reptiles: Cantor’s kukri snake (Oligodon cyclurus ), Indian eyed turtle (Morenia petersi),
Birds: Black francolin (Francolinus francolinus), Little spiderhunter (Arachnothera longirostra),
Mammals: Indian porcupine (Hystrix indica), Black-bearded tomb bat (Taphozous melanopogon), Jungle cat (Felis chaus ) etc animals are found in this zone.
Practically what we have seen in Himalyan Piedmont Plain are describe below-
Part of Third Day:
Mainly Thakurgoan, Ponchogor and part of Dinajpur districts are included in Himalyan region of Bangladesh.
After completing tour in Barind region we went to Himalyan Piedmont Plain. At first we went to Banglabandha in Ponchogor districts. It is the peak place of North of Bangladesh. We found ‘Gargon’ and ‘Rubber’ (Haevia brazilian) trees side of the road in Thakurgoan on way to Banglabandha.
We saw Kartoa River just beside of Tetulia Rest house. That zone is influenced by the river.
We crossed Dhauk, Berong, Chaoie, Theronda etc rivers on way to Banglabandha. We recorded dry bulb temperature 30o C and wet bulb temperature 25o C.
Tea trees and tea indicator are found in Banglabandha. We saw many Tea gardens side of the road. Tea indicator specifically is known as Camelia or Rododendron. Tea indicator can’t found in other Barind or Tista zones.
We went to Ponchogor Govt. Women College to see the Rock Museum. Rock form by process of the petrification. Petrification means when the organic substance transform into the inorganic substance.
Different people collect different type of rock from different place of Panchagor district of Bangladesh and Jolpaiguri and Darjiling districts of India. That’s why the rock museum is rich in collection.
We have seen following rocks in museum-
- Granait – Used in rock bridge.
- Slab – Used to built building.
- Tree and trunk of tree are petrified to rock.
- Coartjit rock- Used in Prayer purpose and memorial monument.
- Bluish Granait 51 “Beley” rock.
- Besont –Used to wash the clothes.
- Jatitattic Dingi boat- It was found in ‘Chaoie’ river. It may used by sub-origin people.
Studying of rocks it is easy to say that when Ponchogor or that zone were started to form, culture of people, used materials etc. Actually rocks of the museum were starting to form Terriary and Pre-cambrian priod. This time period sow the relation between Himalyan zone formation and Ponchogor region.
Next day we went to Angorpota and Dhahogram enclave. These villages are included in Lalmonirhat districts. Lalmonirhat is included in Active Tista Floodplain zone. But we found Himalayan Piedmont Plaint characteristics in the Angorpota and Dhahogram enclave.
In the enclave we recorded dry bulb temperature 34oC and wet bulb temperature 26o C. We found rich soil, enough Pteris, bamboo trees, ‘Jiga’ fruit etc. Rhododendron also found there. It can say that Banglabandha and Angorpota and Dhahogram are included in the same zone and that is Himalyan Piedmont Plain.
It shows that ecosystem is not disturbed by people.
Burimari land port also observed by us. This place is included in Active Tista Floodplain. In Burimari land port found no similarity within ecosystem of Angorpota and it.
Except Barind and Himalyan zones we have seen other zones.
In the Rangpur we found many Tobacco cultivated lands. This region is included in Active Tista Floodplain. We found Tista River as dry. Dry river hamper the agricultural ecosystem. We saw Tista Barage. Now it is non functional. When it was functional creates effects on ecology part of Rangpur and Lalmonirhat. Banded water forced to flow in a canal for agricultural purposes.
We went to Rangpur Carmichiel College. Especially we went to Museum of Zoology Department. Following rare collection they have had-
- Placenta of rat, cat, pig etc.
- Single placenta with four pigs.
- Jaw of Gaviallis.
- Preserved baby of man.
Except these many preserved animals are present in the museum. ‘Auchin’ and ‘Shel’ trees are present in the ground of the Carmichiel College. These trees are not found in other zones. It shows the difference ecosystems are present. Difference of ecosystem is cause of difference of animals which are found in Barind or Himalyan zones.
As our country situated in Oriental region She holds different diversity of flora and fauna. All Oriental regions are full of resources. Bangladesh is not out of resources. The study tour in Bioecological and Agroecological Zones of Bangladesh helped us to gain knowledge about bio-diversity, present scenerio, present climatic condition and habit-habitat of different flora and fauna of these zones. In our country we found varity of zones. These zones are varities on basis of physiography, soils, land levels in relation to flooding and agroclimatology.
We toured in North Bangle and found diversity of animals. This diversity says that whole Bangladesh is full of rich biodiversity.
- Nishat, A. ; Huq, S.M.I.; Barua, S.P.; Reza, A.H.M. A. and Khan, A.S.M. 2002. BIO-ECOLOGICLA ZONES OF BANGLADESH. IUCN Country Office, Dhaka, Bangkadesh.
- Islam, M. Anwarul; Ameen, M; Nishat, A. 2000.Red list of Threatened Animals of Bangladesh. IUCN Country Office, Dhaka, Bangladesh.
- Banglapedia CD Edition February 2008(National Encyclopedia of Bangladesh)
- Verma, P.S.; Agarwal, V.K.2001. Cell Biology, Genetics, Molecular Biology, Evolution, and Ecology. S.Chand and Company Ltd, New Delhi.
- Google Book search _bio-ecology zone of Bangladesh.
- Information given by our honorable teachers.