DIVERSITY AND ABUNDANCE OF INSECT FAUNA IN RAJSHAHI UNIVERSITY CAMPUS

Abstracts

A research survey was conducted in the Rajshahi University Campus during the November, 2008 to May, 2009 to explore the faunal diversity of insects. Sweeping net, plastic containers, stretching board, insect pins, alcohol etc. were used for collecting, killing, stretching and preserving the insects. Altogether 500 insect specimens were collected in five months (November 2008, January 2009, February 2009, March 2009 and May 2009) under 12 Orders viz. Orthoptera, Coleoptera, Lepidoptera, Diptera, Hemiptera, Hymenoptera, Odonata, Ephemeroptera, Psocoptera, Isoptera, Mantoidea. Some undetermined orders were also found during the collection period. Order Diptera was found as most abundant (22.2±1.91) followed by the Coleoptera (17.22±4.55). Minimum abundance was recorded for Mantoidea (0.017±0.016) followed by Psocoptera (0.056±0.054). Among three different trapping spots, highest population of insect was trapped in second science building (6.53±2.94) and lowest population was in third science building (5.72±2.03) during November 2008 to May 2009. Highest number of insects was found in November 2008 (12.06±1.33) followed by February 2009 (5.17±1.19). The lowest population of insect was found in January 2009 (4.04±0.12). Collected specimens were preserved in the departmental insectarium’s.

Introduction

The animals which are in class Hexapoda of phylum Arthropoda are called insect. Estimates of the number of species on Earth depend on understanding beta diversity – the turnover of species composition with distance. One must know whether species have wide-spread or localized distributions. In recent years there has been much speculation on the number of insect species on Earth. Wilson (in 1988) estimated that there are between 5 and 30 million species. They are the most diverse group of animals on the planet and include more than a million species that are already described. Wilson and Chapman (in 2006) reported that, insects represent more than half of all known living organisms. The number of extant species is estimated at between six and ten million (Chapman et. al.2006) and potentially represent over 90% of the differing life forms on Earth (Erwin et. al.1982).  Insects may be found in nearly all environments, although only a small number of species occur in the oceans, a habitat dominated by another arthropod group, the crustaceans. Adult modern insects range in size from a 0.139 mm (0.00547 in) fairyfly (Dicopomorpha echmepterygis) to a 56.7-centimetre (22.3 in) long stick insect (Phobaeticus chani). The heaviest documented present-day insect was a 70 g Giant Weta, though the Goliath beetles Goliathus goliatus, Goliathus regius and Cerambycid beetles such as Titanus giganteus hold the title for some of the largest species in general. The largest known extinct insect is an ancient dragonfly, Meganeura. The relationship of insects’ evolutionary history to that of other animals is unclear, though evidence has emerged indicating that insects and crustaceans may have shared common ancestors. Many highly successful insect groups are shown to have coevolved with flowering plants. Walking, flying, and even swimming are the main transportation of insects. Walking as locomotion in insects is one of the most efficient forms; some have even tried to replicate it through robotics as a way of locomotion. They are the only invertebrates to have evolved flight. Some insects are even able to swim, others being fully aquatic or even skimming on the surface Insects are mostly solitary, but some are social insects, living together in large well-organized colonies and some others taking care of their young, like earwigs. Some social insects are ants, bees, and wasps, which actually benefits humans because bees can produce honey and pollinate crops in large numbers. Though humans still mostly regard insects as pests, and attempt to control them using insecticide. Some other insects are parasitic, such as mosquitoes and lice, or damaging to agriculture, such as locusts. Many are capable of transmitting diseases. On the other hand, insects such as butterflies and bees are beneficial to the environment by engaging in pollination, and insects such as silkworms and bees produce substances useful to humans. In some parts of the world insects are used for human food, a practice known as entomophagy. In order to identify a mate, many insect species have developed specialized sense. About 1,200 insect species are known to be consumed, although many other countries consider this practice taboo: 10–13 Gullan, and Cranston (2005). Hack and Mace (in 1998) reported that the antennae of male moths can detect the pheromones of female moths over distances of many kilometers, while other species use sounds like crickets stridulate, or rub their legs together to attract a mate and repel other males.

 

All insects undergo a series of molts, incomplete or complete metamorphosis; all insects hatch from eggs, but some develop and hatch from inside the womb in live births. Seasonal variation in abundance of tropical insects is a common phenomenon (Wolda, 1988 and Pinheiro et al. 2002).

 

Insects also show huge variety in shape and form. Almost the only condition their group does not attain is very large body size. A number of features, however, are shared by most kinds of living insects. In addition to the general characteristics of uniramians, these include a body composed of three tagmata, a head, thorax, and abdomen; a pair of relatively large compound eyes and usually three ocelli located on the head; a pair of antennae, also on the head; mouthparts consisting of a labrum, a pair of mandibles, a pair of maxillae, a labium, and a tongue like hypo pharynx; two pairs of wings, derived from outgrowths of the body wall (unlike any vertebrate wings); and three pairs of walking legs. Insects have a complete and complex digestive tract. Their mouthparts are especially variable, often complexly related to their feeding habits. Insects “breathe” through a tracheal system, with external openings called spiracles and increasingly finely branched tubules that carry gases right to the metabolizing tissues. Their feeding habits are similarly varied; almost any substance that has nutritive value is eaten by some group of insects.

1.1. Economic Importance:

1.1.1. Agriculture: In agricultural ecosystems, biodiversity is instrumentally important not only for the production of food, but for other ecological services as well, including the recycling of nutrients, regulation of microclimate and local hydrological processes, suppression of undesirable organisms and detoxification of noxious chemicals.

In the United States alone, pollination by bees accounts for over US$ 9 billion of economic revenue. According to some estimates, over one third of the human diet can be traced directly or indirectly to bee pollination. Losses of key pollinators have been reported in at least one region or country on every continent except Antarctica, which has no pollinators. The Millennium Ecosystem Assessment concluded that with the global decline in the amount of pollinators, there is not a complete loss of fruit or seeds, but a significant decrease in quantity and viability in fruits, and a lower number of seeds.

 

1.1.2. Food: Over 1000 species of insects are, or have been used as food somewhere in the world. Entomophagy is common in central and southern Africa, Asia, Australia, and Latin America. Termites, crickets, grasshoppers, locusts, beetles, ants, bee brood, and moth larvae are examples of insects that are used as food sources. Insects are high in protein, energy, and a number of minerals and vitamins and can form up to 5-10% of the annual animal protein consumption of certain indigenous groups. Many insects are said to have a nutty flavor, along with a high nutritional content.

 

1.1.3. Human culture: Early human civilizations held insects as an important element within their cultures. Most famously, scarab beetles were central religious artifacts within Egyptian culture. Insect symbolism, such as the dung beetle portrayed as a potter, is seen in the East as well. The Chinese viewed cicadas as a symbol of birth or immortality, the San of the Kalahari believe that the praying mantis represents creation and patience, and the Greeks also created beautiful representations of scarab beetles using colorful stones.

 

1.1.4. The scope: Over 1 million species of insects have been described, but current estimates of total insect diversity vary from 5-80 million species of insect. Beetles (Coleoptera) make up 40% of described insect species, but some entomologists suggest that flies (Diptera) and Hymenoptera (wasps, bees and ants) could be as diverse or more so. Five orders of insects stand out in their levels of species richness: Hymenoptera, Diptera, Coleoptera, Lepidoptera, and the Hemiptera.

 

1.1.5. Conservation: There are two approaches to the conservation of insects. Either humans set aside large portions of land using “wilderness preservation” as the motive, or confronting the particular processes that affect the charismatic vertebrates in order to achieve indirect conservation of insects. With biodiversity loss being a global problem, conserving habitat simply for species of insects is of low priority in the current environmental culture.

 

Single-species conservation is said to preserve many other species indirectly, this preservation by default is referred to as the umbrella effect. “Charismatic species”, such as butterflies or large, colorful beetles, called flagship species, can expand public awareness and financial contributions for conservation efforts.

 

Migratory species, such as the well-known monarch butterfly (Danaus plexippus), are in need of special conservation methods. One species may require several habitat locations for different periods in their migratory patterns.

 

Insect conservation has been labeled in the past as a concern only for the affluent. The developing country of Papua New Guinea has a “happily ever after” ending in their attempts to preserve the world’s largest butterfly, Queen Alexandra’s Bird wing (Ornithoptera alexandrae). This species is restricted to a very small range of habitat due to specificity in their die.

1.1.6. Relationship to humans

Many insects are considered pests by humans. Insects commonly regarded as pests include those that are parasitic (mosquitoes, lice, bed bugs), transmit diseases (mosquitoes, flies), damage structures (termites), or destroy agricultural goods (locusts, weevils). Many entomologists are involved in various forms of pest control, as in research for companies to produce insecticides, but increasingly relying on methods of bio-control. Bio-control has been proven to be better, as it uses natural means, unlike non-environmentally friendly insecticides.

Although pest insects attract the most attention, many insects are beneficial to the environment and to humans. Some insects, like wasps, bees, butterflies, and ants, pollinate flowering plants. Pollination is a mutualistic relationship between plants and insects. As insects gather nectar from different plants of the same species, they also spread pollen from plants on which they have previously fed. This greatly increases plants’ ability to cross-pollinate, which maintains and possibly even improves their evolutionary fitness. This is ultimately affects humans since ensuring healthy crops is critical to agriculture.

 

Insects also produce useful substances such as honey, wax, lacquer and silk. Honey bees have been cultured by humans for thousands of years for honey, although contracting for crop pollination is becoming more significant for beekeepers. The silkworm has greatly affected human history, as silk-driven trade established relationships between China and the rest of the world.

 

Fly larvae (maggots) were formerly used to treat wounds to prevent or stop gangrene, as they would only consume dead flesh. This treatment is finding modern usage in some hospitals. Adult insects, such as crickets, and insect larvae of various kinds are also commonly used as fishing bait. In some parts of the world, insects are used for human food, while being a taboo in other places. There are proponents of developing this use to provide a major source of protein in human nutrition. According to cultural materialist anthropologist Marvin Harris, the eating of insects is taboo in cultures that have protein sources that require less work, like farm birds or cattle.

 

Many insects, especially beetles, are scavengers that feed on dead animals and fallen trees and thereby recycle biological materials into forms found useful by other organisms. The ancient Egyptian religion considered dung beetles sacred, and represented them as beetle-shaped amulets or scarabs.

 

The insectivores, which feed on other insects, are a very beneficial member of the insect family; for instance aphids are a problem to farmers, but ladybugs eat them, and are now used as a means to get rid of them. The potentiality for many insects to reproduce so quickly means that they could literally cover the earth in a single season were it not for insect control and natural thinning of insects. However, for any given insect, there will be plenty of species of insects that are either parasitoids or predators that play a significant role in controlling it. This role in ecology is usually assumed to be primarily one of birds, but insects, though less glamorous, are much more significant.

 

Human attempts to control pests by insecticides can backfire, because important but unrecognized insects already helping to control pest populations are also killed by the poison. This can eventually lead to population explosions of the pest species. DDT is an example of an insecticide known to have caused great enviromental effects. In 1874, it was first synthesized, though DDT’s it would not be used until the second half of World War II. Then it was used with great effect to control mosquitoes spreading malaria and lice transmitting typhus among civilians and troops, resulting in dramatic reductions in the incidence of both diseases.

1.2. Review of Literature

Research and studies on insects in Bangladesh has now a history of about 100 years. The study of insects in this country may be traced back to the last decade of the 19th century to early 20th century when a series of insect fauna (Fauna of British-India, sponsored by India office) started appearing in the ‘Indian Museum Notes’. But very little information is there from the present day Bangladesh. During Pakistani period attempts were taken to study the insect fauna of this land mainly by Alam (1961-62; 1965; 1967a, b, c; 1970; 1971; 1974) of East Pakistan Agricultural Research Institute.

 

After the independence of Bangladesh, a number of researchers from different Universities (Rajshahi; Dhaka; Chittagong; Jahangir Nagar and Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh), Institutes {Bangladesh Agricultural Research Institute (BARI)- Joydebpur, Bangladesh Jute Research Institute (BJRI)- Dhaka, Bangladesh Rice Research Institute (BRRI)- Joydebpur, Bangladesh Tea Research Institute (BTRI)- Moulvibazar, Sugarcane Research and Training Institute (SRTI)- Ishwardi- Pabna, Bangladesh Livestock Research Institute (BLRI)- Savar, Bangladesh Sericulture Research and Training Institute (BSRTI)- Rajshahi, Bangladesh Forest Research Institute (BFRI)- Chittagong}, Commission {Bangladesh Atomic Energy Commission (BAEC)- Savar- Dhaka} and Council {Bangladesh Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (BCSIR)- Dhaka and Rajshahi} worked on different groups of insects that are mainly economically important. Dhaka and Chittagong Universities (Department of Zoologies) took venture to collect insects and have already made good collections. However, till to date no consolidated account of insect fauna could not be prepared from the Barind Tract, and moreover, research on the insect conservation has not been developed.

1.3. Aims and Objectives of the Study

From the above mentioned review of literatures, it is evident that a only very few works on insect diversity and abundance have been done in our country. Though few researchers reported the diversity of some individual species scattered time to time, but nobody has taken any serious attempt to explore insect fauna from Bangladesh. Moreover works in relation to the variety and adequacy of insects are almost nil in Bangladesh. As a result, our knowledge on insect’s variety is at infant stage. Thus, in order to increase our practical knowledge on the variety of insects, some basic research works, viz. diversity and abundance are needed without any delay. However, it is true that, this cumbersome job can not be done through a single venture. Accordingly area wise works may construct fruitful yields, and finally all of these yields may be amassed to have a consolidated works on insects’ diversity in our country. Hence, a research project entitled, “Diversity and abundance of insects fauna in Rajshahi University Campus” was undertaken to boost up our knowledge on this interesting creatures in one of the important districts of the Barind area. These are the main aims and objectives of the present dissertation.

Study Area

2.1. Location and Area

Rajshahi district is situated between 24° 07″ and 24° 43″ north latitudes and 88° 17″ and 88° 58″ east longitudes. It is bounded on the north by Naogaon district, on the east by Natore district, on the west by Nawabgonj district, and on the south by Kushtia district and India. The present study area Rajshahi University Campus is situated in this Rajshahi district (Motiher thana area).

2.2. Soil Condition of Rajshahi City

The soil of the Rajshahi City is covered by pale brown silty clay loam of meander floodplain of the older Ganges and brown silty clay loam alluviums of the active and very young Ganges meander floodplain.

 

2.3. Climate

It is generally marked with a typical tropical monsoon climate with high temperature, considerable humidity and moderate rainfall. The minimum and maximum mean annual temperature very between 10.6° c to 36.7 º c .The mean monthly relative humidity ranges from 64?in the dry season to about 88? in the rainy season. Annual rainfall as recorded in 1996 was 1269 millimeters.

Materials and Methods

Rajshahi University Campus, which is one of the big campuses in Bangladesh, was selected as the center point of the present study. Insects were mainly collected through light traps, placed in front of the three main gates of the three science buildings viz. first, second and third. Details of the collection methods and materials are as follows:

3.1. Total Period of Collection of Insects

The collection was started on (02 November 2008) and ended on (10 May 2009) that is total duration of collection was six months.

 

3.2. Collection Frequency

The collections were made regularly from the gates of three science buildings (first, second and third) of Rajshahi University Campus at regular interval in six months. Normally, each science building was observed once in a week.

 

3.3. Duration of Each Collection

Insects were collected mainly in the evening. The duration of collection was 1 to 2 hours in three days in a weak infront of the main gates of the three science buildings (first, second and third).

 

3.4. Apparatus and Chemicals used

The following apparatus and chemicals were used for the present study-

  1. Sweeping net
  2. Stretching boards
  3. Forceps
  4. Scissors
  5. Needles
  6. Insect pins (size 000 to 1)
  7. Plastic container
  8. Cotton and tissue paper
  9. Pencil and Paper
  10. Vials and Tags
  11. Chloroform and Alcohol

 

3.5. Collection Procedure

3.5.1. Site selection

The main gates of the three science buildings of Rajshahi University Campus were selected for the present study.

 

3.5.2. Sample collection

Catching insects may require patience and determination. Insects were collected from the main gates of three science buildings using quadrate frame (one square meter), which was made of thread. This collecting frame was divided into four equal parts. For collect the insects, it was placed under light in front of main gates of three science buildings. Then flying insects were collected carefully into the frame, with the help of sweeping net. And the non flying insects were collected with forceps and directly by hands and to preserve them, they were kept into plastic containers, vials etc.

 

3.5.3. Counting

Insects were directly counted from the four parts of the frame. But in the case of counting the number of those insects, which were the most in number were counted from any one of the four parts of the frame. And then their presence of number was counted by multiplying the number of the insects of one of the four parts by four. After that mean and standard error of their abundance was measured.

3.6. Preservation of specimen

3.6.1. Specimen killing

The special technique was taken for killing the collected specimens. Specimens were shifted to a plastic container from the net, than they were killed by alcohol and chloroform. Then the killed specimens were sorted and transferred to the stretching boards, vials and plastic containers.

 

3.6.2. Stretching of the specimens

Insects were stretched on the stretching board, with insect pin and paper. They were pinned through the thorax between the front wings. Insects spread their wings when they move. After moving they close their wings. By the help of forceps and needle the wings of the insect were spread. After pinning, the insects legs, antenna and wings were stretched and arranged in the proper position by the help of forceps and needle, on the stretching board

 

3.6.3. Preservation

After stretching, the stretching boards were left for drying. And after drying the stretched insects were then serially arranged in plastic box with the numbering cards tags for insect’s identification. To protect the fungal and other insect’s attacks, boxes were treated with naphthalene balls.

 

3.7. Data base preparation

During the collection, viz., data of the collection, locality, stage/morph, colours, climate, habitat, abundance, associated animals etc. were recorded in a note book. Later these were transferred in a registered book along the rows of the collection numbers.

 

3.8. Identification

Insects can be identified either at its larval or adult stages. Since present collection was made on the adults only, the characters that are used mainly for adults. Some traits used to classify insects up to order-

  • Mouth parts
  • Characters of insect’s wings (winged and wingless)
    • Apterygota
    • Pterygota (Exopterygota and Endopterygota)

 

3.9. Curation

The identified (as mention above) insect specimens were kept in to drawers in serial number in the insect division of the Zoological Museum, Department of Zoology Rajshahi University. Naphthalene balls were used in order to protect the infection of microbs or other organisms.

 

3.10. Data analysis

Analysis tool pack of Microsoft office Excel 2003 is used for the analysis of data (viz. calculation of mean, Standard deviation and standard error etc.).

Results

4.1. Identification of Insect order:

After proper preservation, the insect samples were identified up to Order level following the literature as:

Hampson (1894), Bingham (1975), Gahan (1906), Jacoby (1908), Marshal (1916), Kirby (1914), Fraser (1934), Talbot (1939,1947), Andrewes (1929), Coulsan & J. A.. Witter (1943), Blackwelder (1966), Fres (1975), Saudars (1955), Verma (1971), Gayer (1983), Metcalf & Flint (1962), Ganguly et al (1970), Borrodile & Potty (1932), Srivastava (1970), Patton & Evans (1989), Fox & Fox (1963), Kotpal (1995), Smith (1985), Keeton (1976), Dales (1967), Benton & Werner (1958).

 

4.1.1. Keys (based on present collection)

1. One pair of wings……………………………………………………..….go to 2

Two pairs of wings …………………………………………………….….go to 3

2. (1) Hind wings reduced to tiny knobs (halteres), tip of abdomen without 2-3 thread-like tails    Diptera

2. (1) Hind wings not reduced to tiny knobs tip of abdomen without 2-3 thread-like tails (caudal filaments)                                                                                                      Ephemeroptera

3. (1) Front and hind wings have similar texture……………………….…..go to 4

Front wings a rigid or leathery covering for clear hind wings ……….go to 13

4. (3) Wings covered with powdery scales, mouthparts usually a coiled tube (proboscis) for sucking                                                                                                      Lepidoptera

Wings not covered with powdery scales, mouthparts not a coiled tube……………….. ……………………………………………………go to 5

5. (4) Wings slope downwards (rooflike) from the center at rest ………….go to 6

Wings not held rooflike at rest ……………………………………….go to 8

6. (5) Mouthparts not in the form of a rigid beak, antennae not short and bristley, body never looks like a thorn………………………………………..…………go to 7

7. (6) Wins without many cross veins Psocoptera

8. (5) Front and hind wings similar in size and shape……………………………..go to 9

Front and hind wings not similar in size and shape………………….go to11

9. (8) Antennae always short and bristley                                          Odonata

Antennae never short and bristley……………………………………………….go to 10

10. (9) wings held flat over abdomen when at rest, last abdominal segment not enlarged, usually found in colonies.                                                                                                   Isoptera

11. (8) Body very soft, without a narrow “waist”……………………….…go to 12

Body not exceptionally soft,often with a narrow “waist” Hymenoptera

12. (11) Hinds wings much smaller than front wings, not folded underneath like a fan.      Ephemroptera

13. (3) Chewing mouthparts, front wings with out clear tips …………………..go to 14

14. (13) Rigid front wings (elytra) meet in a straight line down the middle          of the back         Coleoptera

Front wings not an above ……………………………………………………….go to 15

15. (14) Head visiable from above ………………………………………………………go to 16

 

16. (15)    Front legs strong with prominent spines for grasping prey,hind legs long and slender.    Mantodea

Front legs without spines or with weak spines, the femora of the hind legs

longsare enlarged for jumping                                              Orthoptera

Discussion

The research reveals that, by the month November 2008 the populations of insects of the orders Orthoptera (33.73333), Coleoptera (41.06667), Lepidoptera (7.6), Diptera (25.96667), Hemiptera (14.01667), Dermaptera (8.683333), Odonata (0.45), Mantoidea (0.066667), Isoptera (2.15) and the insects of some other undetermined groups (3.75) were found most abundantly among the studied months when the temperature and relative humidity were 22.98°C and 78.63% respectively.

But, Psocopteran population (0.22) was found abundantly only in January 2009.  In this month the populations of orders Dermaptera (0), Coleoptera (2.666667), Orthoptera (0.886667) were in a lowest abundance. When, the temperature and relative humidity were 18.45°C and 83% respectively.

In February 2009, Hymenopterans (20.25) and Ephemeropterans (3.75) were found in an abundant rate but Hemipterans (0.5) were in a lowest abundance when the temperature and humidity were 21.01°C and 68.64% respectively.

The month- March 2009 had no abundant population of insects, but the insects of Orders Lepidoptera (1.5), Isoptera (0.5) and some other undetermined insects (0.5) were in a lowest abundance when the temperature and humidity were 25.48°C and 64.13% respectively.

The same was found in the month May 2009 for the highest abundance, but in this month Dipterans (12.75), Hymenopterans (9.5) and Ephemeroptera (0) were found in a lowest abundance when the temperature and humidity were 29.68°C and 76.84% respectively.

From the above discussion, it is clear that there is a link among the temperature and relative humidity with the abundance of insect orders.

But, contrary to expectations, the abundance of total litter insect fauna did not vary among seasons in this mid-elevation tropical evergreen forest. Although the abundance of insects did not vary seasonally, the individual insect groups that comprised the population did. Though these patterns were quantified for only a single year in this study, causal observations made in earlier studies (Sabu, 2005) support the observed findings. Fluctuations in rainfall appeared to have no role in deciding the abundance of individual and overall fauna. In view of other variables such as litter depth, litter moisture, humidity and temperature that are directly or indirectly related to rainfall and litter insect population densities (Lensing, et al., 2005; Wagner, et al., 2003; Vineesh, et al. 2007). These findings considering the influence of rainfall alone must be examined with caution. The seasonality of litter insect abundance observed in the region deviate from the distinct seasonality in other regions (Frith and Frith, 1990; Burgess, et al. 1999) where abundance of fauna peaked during wet period and declined during the dry summer period. We attribute this to the occurrence of rainfall during all seasons and the presence of moderate summer conditions in the study region.

The present study also reveals that among the studied insect orders, the most abundant were Dipterans (22.2±1.91). The abundance relationship of insect orders is- Diptera > Coleoptera > Orthoptera > Hymenoptera > Hemiptera > Lepidoptera > Dermaptera > Undetermined > Ephemeroptera > Isoptera > Odonata > Psocoptera > Mantoidea. Where previous study in Africa showed the relationship Collembolan > Formicidae > Coleoptera > Orthoptera > Psocoptera (Burgess, et al. 1999) and in Australia Collembola > insect larvae > Formicidae > Diptera (Frith and Frith, 1990). The Dipteran insects were found abundantly among other orders of studied insects in light trap which is contrary to the previous studies (of different workers).

The present study also shows the abundance relationship in three science buildings. In first science building the relationship is- Hymenoptera (23.19) > Diptera (23.19) > Orthoptera (15.01) > Coleoptera (14.05) > Dermaptera (4.43) > Lepidoptera (2.77) > Hemiptera (2.77) > Undetermined (1.88) > Ephemeroptera (1.7) > Isoptera (0.23) > Psocoptera (0.22) > Odonata (0.2) > Mantoidea (0.067). In the second science building the relationship is- Coleoptera (28.62) > Diptera (22.56) > Hymenoptera (22.56) > Orthoptera (10.75) > Lepidoptera (5.25) > Hemiptera (5.25) > Undetermined (2.25) > Dermaptera (1.62) > Ephemeroptera (1.17) > Isoptera (1) > Odonata (0.08) > Psocoptera (0) > Mantoidea (0) and in third science building- Orthoptera (23.02) > Lepidoptera (23.02) > Diptera (18.75) > Coleoptera (4.21) > Hemiptera (3.46) > Hymenoptera (3.45) >  Undetermined (2.18) > Ephemeroptera (1.94) > Mantoidea (1.855) > Psocoptera (0.56) > Dermaptera (0.17) > Isoptera (0) > Odonata (0). These findings of the study somewhat support the observations made by Frith and Frith (1990) that faunal abundance relative to other groups vary between different geographical regions.

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2 thoughts on “DIVERSITY AND ABUNDANCE OF INSECT FAUNA IN RAJSHAHI UNIVERSITY CAMPUS”

  1. I can’t copy this post. But I wish to make a backup of this post to use for future. Would you please send me a copy of this article. It is important form me. Waiting for your reply. Thanks.

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