Dactylogyrus sp. is one of the biggest genera of Monogenean parasite. It is well known as gill fluke. Body elongated, length 0.287-0.395 mm and width 0.69 – 0.91 mm. They have four lobed head and four black eyes. The intestinal limbs are confluent posterior. The ovary lies in front of the testis. Dactylogyrids lay eggs and live as parasites, particularly on the gill. The diseases caused by Dactylogyrus sp. called Dactylogyrosis. Carp fish commonly silver carp, beside that shing, magur also affected by this parasite.
Trichodina sp. is a Protozoan parasite. Body cup shaped, diameter 17.0— 61.8 µm. Adhesive disc concave diameter 13.7—48.5 µm.. Adoral ciliary spiral 395—400. Free swimming with numerous long cilia surrounding the body. They are looks like a watch glass, bell-jar or a hat. The central part is delicate and sloped posterior. The disease produce by Trichodina sp. called Trichodiniasis (Fig. 4.2).
RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN HOST FISHES AND THEIR PARASITES
The influence of parasite on its host
Every parasite living in or a fish exerts some degree of harmful influence on its host. This influence may result in extensive change in individual organs or tissues, or it can take on the character of a general effect. In either case the parasites causing these changes is regarded as pathogenic. On the other hand, this influence can be so slight that it does not cause the appearance of any external sings. In such cases parasites are commonly considered as non-pathogenic. However, small the noxious effect, every parasite is harmful to its host. It must also be remembered that any deflection from the parasite of an unusual site within the host, or sudden increase in the numbers of the parasite or changes in the physiological condition of the host can cause supposedly non-pathogenic parasite to assume a strongly pathogenic character. For example, Dactylogyrus minutum, a small and allegedly harmless monogenean infesting the gills of the carp occurs only in small numbers in natural waters but is capable of prolific reproduction in aquaria, where it might cause the death of its host.
Parasite can influence the body of the fish in many different ways. Usually one type of activity is responsible for various pathological changes, indicating the extent to which the fish as a whole has been affected. For example, the mechanical obstruction caused by the cysts of Myxobolus cyprinid in the renal blood vessels of the carp results both in disturbances of the blood functions and of the water exchange processes. The ways on which parasites may affect the body of the fish can be grouped under several headings.
A number of different animal parasites are found in fishes. The following different groups of parasites are reported from both marine and freshwater fishes. They are protozoa, Trematodes (monogenetic and digenetic), Cestodes, Nematodes, parasites are mentioned below with diagrams here:
Protozoa – Protozoans are characterized by their microscopic size and by the fact that they are unicellular (plate I; A, B). There are many species of protozoans, both free living and parasitic. Their ability to multiply on or within their hosts names them in many instances very dangerous to fish. Protozoa belonging to the Cilliophora are equipped with cilia (short, fine cytoplasmic outgrowth), or structure derived from cilia by secondary modifications, or both. All Sarcomastigophora so far recorded (in Southeast Asia) belong to the subphylum Mastigophora i.e. they are all equipped with flagella as are always few in numbers. Finally, members of phylum, Myxozoa, during their vegetative stages have neither cilia nor flagella, but resemble amoebae in their mode of progression. There most characteristic and taxonomically important feature is spores.
ISOLATION OF BACTERIA FROM TILAPIA FISH (O.nilotica)
The present study was conducted to isolate, culture and identification (by gram staining) of bacteria from diseased fish Tilapia ( Oreochromis niloticus).In the present study, monthly prevalence and abundance of the pathogenic bacteria were studied.The host Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) harbored different types of bacteria .Bacteria are found in different parts of the body. Such as: -ulcerative lesions, gills, intestine, kidney etc.The highest prevalence of bacteria in Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus)was found in the month of March (80%) and lowest in the month of October (20%).The out break of EUS syndrome has been occurring by the bacteria during the period from November to March. E. coli ;Aeromonas hydrophila ; Aeromonas fungatum ; Aeromonas veronii ;Aeromonas salmonicida ;Aeromonas jandaei ;Seudomonas anguiliseticus ;Staphylococcusepidermatis ;Klebsiella sp are isolated from the ulcerative fish. But which is the causal agent of EUS can not be specifically identified. (Kar et al, 1999b).