Abstract of FORAGING ACTIVITY OF THE EUROPEAN HONEY BEE, APIS MELLIFERA L. ON LITCHI FLOWER IN DIFFERENT HOURS OF THE DAY

ABSTRACT

Foraging activities of honeybee, Apis mellifera L. on Litchi plants in one square metre was studied during the year, 2010. The results of the study indicated that the foraging activity of European honey bee is different in the different hours of the day. There are three castes of honey bee i.e. Queen, Worker and Drone. Only the workers show the foraging activity. They collect nectar and pollen from flowers for their nutrition and development. Foraging activity becomes more active in the morning than noon and evening, between noon and evening in the time of afternoon the foraging rate of bee comparatively increases than that in the noon. It has been observed on the average, that a number of 271.6 been forage per square metre in the morning which drops down to 111.2 in the noon. In the afternoon 145.2 bees per square metre foraged. The forage rate decreases before the sunset when only 83.4 bees per square metre were found on an average to forage. The study was carried out from 13th March to 22th March 2010.

INTRODUCTION to FORAGING ACTIVITY OF THE EUROPEAN HONEY BEE, APIS MELLIFERA L. ON LITCHI FLOWER IN DIFFERENT HOURS OF THE DAY

INTRODUCTION

Flowering plants and honeybees have a special relationship in which both are benefited from each other. As honeybees get food and in turn facilitate their pollination process. Honeybees visit flowers to collect pollen and nectar. Pollens are the principle source of protein, fats, vitamins and minerals, which are essential for honeybee growth and development, repairing of worn out tissue and stimulating the development of     hypo-pharyngeal glands. Nectar is the carbohydrate compounds mainly sucrose, fructose and glucose portion of the honeybee’s food and is the raw material of honey (Jones and Yates, 1991).

During foraging activities, honeybees identify and differentiate among various flowers using odours and both intensity and odour quality effect the ability of honeybee to discriminate between floral perfumes (Pham-Delegue et al. 1986).

Honeybee forage by selecting flowers that have similar shape, colour and odor (Chittka et al., 1999).

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Symbiosis, status of relationship

Symbiosis

Definition: Any animal or plant spends a portion or all of its life cycle intimately associated with another organism of a different species is considered as symbiont or symbiote and the relationship is designated as symbiosis. By employing the term symbiosis, no intent is meant to emply the occurrence or mutual or unilateral metabolic dependency.

In order to facilitate understanding, four subordinate categories of symbiotic relationships are commonly distinguished. Under the broad heading of symbiosis, types of associations known as phoresis, commensalisms, parasitism, and mutualism should be identified.

1). Phoresis: The term phoresis means, “to carry”. During this type of relationship, that which is usually the smaller fo the two species- the phoront –is mechanically carried in or on the larger species – the host. No metabolic interaction or dependency occurs. An example of phoresis is the transport of bacteria on the legs of flies. The fly host provides only involuntary transportation for the bacteria.

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Zoology, the study of animals

Biology is the science of living things. The word biology is derived from the Greek bios meaning’’ life’’ and logos’’ the study of’’. All knowledege about living things study on the biology. Biologists think of two main subdivision of biology- botany, the study of plant , and zoology ,the study of animals.other biologists feel that there are really three types of organisms- plants, animals and microorganisms- and consider microbiology to be a major subdivision of biology.

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